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Full text of "Rapid Population Growth Consequences And Policy Implications"

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ogical stress (to which DuBos refers) that converts latent infection ert symptoms and pathology. As is discussed later, it would appear s factors that produce the physiological stress are unlikely to occur in ence of crowding but are not due necessarily to the physical presence y infected individuals.
ddition to following an inappropriate set of hypotheses, most research e health consequences of crowding has failed to take into account the )ility of living organisms. To a large extent the current views are based xaminations of health conditions under varying degrees of crowding at lint in time. Fewer studies deal with the reactions of individuals to d conditions over the passage of time. The few studies that do indicate ganisms have the power to adapt to a wide range of conditions, includ-wding, if the changes to which they are called upon to adapt occur ibly slowly. These findings suggest that many of the deleterious effects wding will occur only, or maximally, in those individuals who are ners to the crowded scene. Such a formulation may explain Kessler's s which, as mentioned earlier, contradict other animal studies that :amined the effects of crowding on first generation animals only.
/ a Reformulation of the Conceptual Model
:onsiderable amount of the confusion concerning the health conse-;s of crowding is due to the lack of utility of the network of hypoth-iat have been used to determine research strategy and to interpret h results. Stated in its most simplistic form, the hypothesis implicit in )f existing research holds that crowding is "bad" simply because it es the opportunity for interpersonal contact and thus facilitates the lange of external disease agents. That this model does not explain many known phenomena and is generally an inadequate guide for the devel-t of research strategy is illustrated in some of the data presented ear-, then, the relationships between crowding and human health are to be ited in a more satisfactory manner, a more appropriate set of hypoth-eds to be elaborated.
mal experiments have quite convincingly demonstrated some of the erm health consequences of increased population density. Of course, findings cannot necessarily be extrapolated directly to man. They will o be modified by taking into account the adaptability of biological sms before one can draw long-term conclusions. However, some of the ying concepts from such studies may be extremely useful in developing :ts of hypotheses for studies of man. Welch (18), for example, studied :ects of increased population size on mice. He noted that, as the size of ipulation increases, physiological changes occur in the animal, such as :ement of the adrenocortical and adrenal medullary secretions. He has